Intention and reality of combined transportation - insights from Sweden

International issues This report provides an insight in how the EU Combined Transport Directive is used in practice in Sweden. Contrary to its intentions, the Directive provides a loophole for ignoring social sustainability.


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This report, compiled in cooperation with the Swedish Transport Workers’ Union is an attempt to give an understanding of how the EU Combined Transport Directive is used in practice in Sweden.

The aim of the EU directive was to promote intermodal transport in Europe, i.e. using several different modes of transportation, in order to increase the proportion of goods transported by rail or sea instead of on Europe’s congested roads.

The ambition of the directive was good, but this report shows that the directive, as it stands today, contributes to unfair competition and social dumping on the European labour market. The directive has even contributed to a shift from rail to road, the opposite to what the legislator intended. The report therefore urges for abolishing of  the Combined Transport Directive.

We hope that this report will play a role in the ongoing revision of the directive, to ensure a more sustainable future for transportation in Europe.

 Intention and reality of "Combined transportation" - insights from Sweden (pdf)